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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Spent the day in the archeological dig at Sanauli. The finds include a two chariots, copper swords, helmet etc dating from 2300-1950 BCE. Evidence growing that Gangetic plains has a civilization contemporary to Harappan & just as advanced 1/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
With archaeologist Sanjay Manjul looking at a warrior chief's coffin. Notice elaborate grave goods. The quality of metal work and other items is distinct from Harappan. 2/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Notice how the bricks of this civilization do not follow Harappan standardization. 3/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
The pottery in the graves and nearby settlement are made in a style very similar to what the local potter can still make. Almost identical techniques. 4/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Lunch at the ASI camp in Sanauli. 5/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal
Copper sword found at Sanauli. It is in very good shape and first one with handle intact. The Gangetic civilization was clearly a warrior culture 6/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
This is a copper helmet. This is the oldest helmet found anywhere in the world (2200 BC) 7/n
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Shoonyam Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Could be a vessel/container too
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Wooden shield with copper studs,. The wood has disintegrated but the copper has survived 8/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sinezero
No, it was found with sword, shield and is designed to fit a head.
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Copper studs placed in the wooden chariot wheel 9/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
This is a copper chalice for ritual offerings (upside down in photo). A very similar vessel is still used for puja in eastern India (Assamese call it a "bota"). Note that base is a tutle recalling the Hindu myth of a turtle holding up the world 10/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
It is quite interesting that earliest evidence of a warlike chariot driving culture is coming from Gangetic plains and not North West. The earliest iron weapons in the world also comes from Gangetic plains & Deccan. This overturn our usual view of early Indian history. 11/n
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
We also need to revisit the idea that Gangetic plains were not settled when Harappans were flourishing. Many Bronze Age sites being found in Ganga basin (example Jhusi near Prayag). The problem is that their settlements were build of wood, not brick. Hence survived poorly 12/n
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newfriend Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
Why is this surprising? Aryan migrations and the harrappan collapse had occurred by 2000 BC. Aryans used chariots. This find could very well indicate an old aryan settlement.
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @haggsquat
Findings of Sanauli are not isolated, they fit other copper hoards found in West UP /East Haryana. Culture seems to be somewhat different from the Indus-Saraswati (Haryana, Punjab, etc). However, they certainly interacted & we are dealing with a continuum, not hard borders
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Ashesh Shah🇮🇳 Feb 17
Replying to @sanjeevsanyal
In all probability the early civilisational ruins, sites of Gangetic plains have not survived due to continued human occupation. Harappa was abandoned as the river Saraswati changed course, thus ruins were buried under ravages of time.
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Sanjeev Sanyal Feb 17
Replying to @shahashesh2001
The use of wood is key issue in Gangetic plains. This is why little has survived even of Pataliputra which is of much later era
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