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Christian Sahner
1/ A few days ago, I posted an image of a 7th-c. Iranian coin with the profession of faith (the shahada) in . Here’s a parallel example, minted in 1028 in in modern , with a bilingual - inscription
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @ccsahner
2/ The reads: “avyaktam ekaṃ, muhamadaḥ avatāraḥ, nrpatiḥ mahamudah” (The Invisible is one; Muhammad is His manifestation [avatar] Mahmud is the king)
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @ccsahner
3/ The is fairly standard and reads: “There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, Protector of the state, and Custodian of the community, Mahmud.” This is the famous Mahmud of Ghazni (r. 999-1030), who, among other things, was patron of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @ccsahner
4/ As with the coin, it’s remarkable to see the shahada translated into a non-Islamic language and idiom. Clearly this was part of an effort to reach the subject population, even to make seem more palatable to them
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @ccsahner
5/ Such coins help us see an alternative version of early Islamic history in which , , , , , and other languages of the conquered peoples might have become fully “Islamic” languages along with
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @ccsahner
6/ Of course, this didn’t happen, as retained its status as the premier language of Islamic religion, high culture, and public expression. , , and other languages eventually became important for , but in slightly later periods
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Christian Sahner 15 Nov 19
Replying to @barbarikon
7/ If you’re interested in reading more about this coin, I recommend this superb blog post by , from which I learned a great deal:
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