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Naqad Studies
The Naqad Islamic Studies server is an open resource server for print and online collections that support Late Antique, Near Eastern and Islamic Studies.
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Naqad Studies Feb 18
Hi Al-Laithy, happy to contribute to the discussion. Though there are many alleged 7th c insciptions, many have been evaluated by archaeologists (Muslim and non) & concluded that there are no inscriptions mentioning Muhammad by name before Abd al-Malik's Qubbat al-Sakhrah, 70 AH.
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Marijn van Putten Feb 12
Found a nice non-canonical reading that reworks much of the verse: Red (canonical) kafā bi-llāhi šahīdan baynī wa-baynakum wa-man ʿindahū ʿilmu l-kitābi "Allah, and whoever has knowledge of the Scripture, is sufficient witness between me and you"
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
What evidence do we have for Pre-Islamic and Islamic burials in Ayla and the Jordan region? Let's look at two case examples, from two locations.
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Tweeting Historians Feb 7
Replying to @Tweetistorian
Ibn Isḥāq's "Sīra" actually relates that al-Barāʾ made his decision to pray toward the 🕋 in Mecca rather than "Syria" before he'd even met the Prophet Muḥammad. And al-Barāʾ did this despite the protests of his companions who argued that "our prophet prayed toward Syria." -rh
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Mosaics from the larger of 2 churches in Petra. It was here that the Petra Papyri were found, the largest cache of ancient papyrological documents found in Jordan. The church gleamed with Byzantine floorwork and Nabatean floral wall reliefs, both celebrating paradisiacal imagery.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Is this 210° burial direction a coincidence? Did early Muslims adopt these burial customs from the Nabatean people living in the area? Or does this represent a transitional period between Nabatean and post-Muawiyah I burial practices?
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Furthermore, we know from contemporary 7th c accounts that Moses was one of the first central prophetic figures in the theological worldview of the emerging Arab leadership. Early 7th c Arab inscriptions venerate Moses, who traditionally received the Pentateuch at Mt Sinai.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Mt Sinai was a central pilgrimage site throughout Late Antiquity, and a strategic monastic stronghold. The pre-Islamic pilgrimage route departed from Gaza to Nessana, continued to Aila/Aqaba, and onward to Mt Sinai. This route continued to be in use after the Arab conquest.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Why Mt Sinai? Emperor Justinian I had an impressive monastery built at the site in the mid 6th c, surrounding a chapel which traditionally encloses Moses' Burning Bush. One of two contested sites for Aaron's tomb is at Mt Sinai (the other being at Petra).
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Furthermore, we have the deceased facing the same direction that the early Islamic mosque's mihrab of Ayla was positioned (~215°). We have seen that Mt Sinai is the only contemporary religious site along this direction.   
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
What do these burial examples from Nabatean Arabia show us?  Although laying to rest the body on its side is not typically considered a Nabatean practice, there is nonetheless apparent evidence of this ritual in the pre-Islamic period.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
The deceased in the pre-Islamic grave is put on her left side (the article mentions right side, but that seems to be a mistake) looking towards 220°, the direction of Mount Sinai. The deceased in the Islamic grave is laid on the right side looking towards Mecca (160°).
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Excavations at Bir Madkhur revealed two graves - one pre-Islamic and one Islamic.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Case 2: Bir Madkhur/Jordan Pre-Islamic and islamic burial Info from: A Preliminary Report on the Cemeteries of Bir Madhkur Megan A. Perry Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research No. 346 (May, 2007),pp. 79-93
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
The archaeologists’ description of their finds are provided below. Note that “facing South” is the paper's shorthand for referring to this particular 210° direction.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
This 120° orientation is surprising. Jewish graves would be oriented to Jerusalem, Christian graves to the East (sunrise). But Aila had a predominantly Nabatean population. The bodies were laid on their right side, and looking towards a direction of ~210° SW as mentioned.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Archaeological excavations (1994-2000) of Byzantine Aila uncovered a pre-Islamic cemetery. The graves are oriented 120° towards the SW.
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
Replying to @NaqadStudies
Case 1:  Pre-Islamic Burial in Aila Info from: A Nabataean and Roman Domestic Area at the Red Sea Port of Aila Alexandra Retzleff Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research No. 331 (Aug., 2003),pp. 45-65
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Naqad Studies Feb 7
What evidence do we have for Pre-Islamic and Islamic burials in Ayla and the Jordan region? Let's look at two case examples, from two locations.
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Naqad Studies Feb 3
Replying to @NaqadStudies
With the two medieval traditional theories (SE and SW), and the Canopus theory (S) first suggested by King himself, an early qibla facing any SE, S, or SW direction is now said to be explained.
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