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foone
So, Kodak is weird. And a particular way they are weird has to do with the International Fixed Calendar, as developed by Moses Cotsworth in 1902. It's a calendar designed to be maximally compatible with the standard Gregorian while also fixing many of the problems of it.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So it's a 13-month calendar. All the standard English months plus the month of Sol, inserted between June and July. All months are 4-weeks long, and start on a Sunday.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So this has the nice property that a given date is always the same day of the week. January 8th is a Sunday, and is always a Sunday no matter what year it is, or if it's a leap year, or anything.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So, two obvious exceptions this calendar is going to have to deal with, and the unique way it deals with them: 1. 28*13 is 364: Where does the extra day go? 2. Leap years. Does it have them? Does it go out of sync with Gregorian?
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Well, the extra day is Year Day, and is December 29th. Since December 28th is (of course) a Saturday, this'd be... Sunday? Kinda. But January 1st is also a Sunday. So it's really more a DOUBLE SUNDAY (or DOUBLE SATURDAY) situation.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
As for leap years, it follows the same rules as the Gregorian calendar, but places the leap day in a different place: it's added to Sol, the middle month, as Sol 29. So you get another 3-day weekend situation where it's Saturday-???-Sunday
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
The years are synced with Gregorian, which means January 1-28th are identical for every year, then they diverge. Well, they're identical in terms of date: they will usually have different days of the week.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
For example, this year started on a Tuesday, but in IFC January 1st is always a Sunday.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So in the 1920s the League of Nations was evaluating alternative calendars and selected the IFC as the best of the 130 proposed calendars. The International Fixed Calendar League was formed in 1923 to promote it, lead by Sir Sandford Fleming.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
They ceased operations in 1937 after they failed to get final approval to adopt IFC from the League of Nations. But what does this have to do with Kodak?
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Well, one of the strongest supporters of the IFC was George Eastman, who invented the first successful roll-film system and founded Eastman Kodak.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So while the International Fixed Calendar was never adopted by any country, one place it did get used was within the Kodak corporation. From 1928 to 1989, they ran their business by the IFC instead of the gregorian calendar!
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
The George Eastman House has examples of the Kodak Calendar as distributed through those years.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Eastman himself wrote an article for Nation's Business in 1926, explaining the benefits of this calendar. He was focusing more on businesses adopting it rather than nations.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
One of the main benefits he mentions is that it'll make all months (other than February) shorter. Shorter months mean monthly transactions happen more often, so business don't have to wait as long for payments.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
One fun side-effect of this calendar is that it fixes the date of Easter: Since the IFC is effectively a lunar calendar and has fixed days-of-the-week, Easter will always end up on April 15th.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
In any case, by 1929 the International Fixed Calendar League was primarily being being driven by Eastman, who had opened a US branch of the IFCL. The League of Nations had narrowed down their calendar proposals to just two, including Eastman's (I'm not sure what the other was)
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Unfortunately, George Eastman passed away in 1932, so the movement lost a lot of momentum, and then soon after the League of Nations was less worried about calendars and more about Europe ramping up to war.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
as for non-calendar reasons why Kodak is weird: They discovered something in 1946 that wasn't publicly known and was supposed to be top secret. And they sued the government over it.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
In July 1945 the US tested the first nuclear weapon in New Mexico, at Trinity site. This was initially covered up as an explosion at an ammunition magazine, but was revealed as a nuclear test after the bombing of Hiroshima.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
The thing about the test that wasn't made public was the fallout, and how far it had spread. See, Nuclear weapons create two types of fallout: 1. long half-life fission products, un-fissioned material, and weapon residues 2. short half-life sand & dust.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
1 is always created, and can be calculated from how the weapon is designed and how big it is. Later designs are smaller and involve more fusion stages, and are therefore "cleaner": More of the materials gets used up in the explosion, so there's less of type-1 fallout.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
and #2 is directly related to the altitude of the explosion. Generally when you're trying to destroy a city, you want to detonate it high up: This means there's better angles for the shockwave to destroy more of the city, and you're not getting blocked by hills.
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foone 17 Jul 19
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Nuclear weapons are very powerful but if you put a lot of their energy into destroying a big hill of dirt that's a lot of energy that could have gone into flattening buildings.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
But the other reason why you detonate them high up is because it limits how must dust & dirt you throw in the air. And a bunch of freshly irradiated dust will happily get high up in the atmosphere and rain down elsewhere. This is usually a very bad thing.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Because (in a war) that dust could easily travel to neighboring countries who are now very pissed off at you for poisoning them. Or when you're testing in your own country, that dust is raining down on your own crops, even 5 states away.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
And the fun part of the Trinity test is that it was a ground-based test. They raised it up as high as they could, sure, but that was only a 100-foot (30m) tower.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So compared to most tests, it put out a massive amount of fallout. Most of this was very diffuse and not super dangerous, but it was over a very large area, and there are ways it could get concentrated.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
Like for example, on a river. And a paper mill in Indiana that was making cardboard pulp from corn husks was inadvertently using river water contaminated by the Trinity fallout.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
So as early as August 1945 (the month Hiroshima & Nagasaki were bombed!), Kodak started noticing their film was getting fogged and spotty. Because they shipped their film in cardboard containers, made from a paper mill in Indiana.
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foone 17 Jul 19
Replying to @Foone
See, photographic film is basically a bunch of silver halide crystals suspended in gelatin. These crystals have complex chemistry that causes spots on their surface to turn metallic if they absorb light... or gamma rays.
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